The Indian constitutions provided a detailed protocol for the passage bill to become a law. According to the Indian Constitution, a bill is defined as the draft of a legislative proposal. A Bill can be introduced either by a Minister or by a private member in either House of Parliament-Lok Sabha (Lower House) or Rajya Sabha (Upper House). In the former case it is known as a Government Bill and in the later case it is known as a Private Member's Bill. But the Money Bills can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha. A Money Bill, before it is introduced in the Lower House, has to receive the approval of the President.
Steps involved on passage of a Bill.
- Preparation of Bill: Expertise and technical knowledge is required for preparing a bill, and apart from knowledge regarding the matter legal background is required for preparing a bill. Therefore, some MPs also take the trouble of preparing bills and introduced them in the Parliament.
- First Reading: The legislative process starts with the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament--Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha. It is necessary for a member-in-charge of the Bill to ask for leave to introduce the Bill. If leave is granted by the House, the Bill is introduced. This stage is known as the First Reading of the Bill. If the motion for leave to introduce a Bill is opposed, the Speaker may, in his discretion, allow brief explanatory statements to be made by the member who opposes the motion and the member-in-charge who moved the motion.
- Publication in Gazette: After a Bill has been introduced; it is published in the Official Gazette. Even before introduction, a Bill might, with the permission of the Speaker, be published in the Gazette.
- Second Reading: The Second Reading which usually takes place after an interval of two days after the first reading. At this stage, any of the four courses are adopted. First, the bill may be taken for consideration by the House at once, Second, it may be sent to a select committee of the House, Third, it may be sent to a joint select committee of the two Houses and, Fourth, it may be circulated for eliciting public opinion. Very rarely bills are taken up for consideration straight way.
- Third Reading: Thereafter, the member-in-charge can move that the Bill be passed. This stage is known as the Third Reading of the Bill. At this stage debate is confined to arguments either in support or rejection of the Bill without referring to the details thereof further than that are absolutely necessary. Only formal, verbal or consequential amendments are allowed to be moved at this stage.
- Bill in another House: After the Bill is passed by one House, it is sent to the other House for concurrence with a message to that effect, and there also it goes through the stages described above except the introduction stage.
- Consideration of Bill in Joint sitting: If a Bill passed by one House is rejected by the other House, or, the Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the Bill, or more than six months elapse from the date of the receipt of the Bill by the other House without the Bill being passed by it, the President may call a joint sitting of the two Houses to resolve the deadlock. If, at the joint sitting of the Houses, the Bill is passed by a majority of the total number of members of both the Houses present and voting, with the amendments, if any, accepted by them, the Bill is deemed to have been passed by both the Houses.
- Assent by President: The President may give his assent or withhold his assent to a Bill. The President may also return the Bill (except a Money Bill) with his recommendations to the Houses for reconsideration, and if the Houses pass the Bill again with or without amendments the President cannot withhold his assent to the Bill. The President, however, is bound to give his assent to a Constitution Amendment Bill passed by the Houses of Parliament by the requisite special majority and, where necessary, ratified by the States.
Bills that have been passed in year 2016 (till October 5th):
- THE INSTITUTES OF TECHNOLOGY (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2016
- THE LOKPAL AND LOKAYUKTAS (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2016
- THE CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2016
- THE ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY INTEREST AND RECOVERY OF DEBTS LAWS AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2016
- THE CONSTITUTION (SCHEDULED CASTES) ORDER (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2016
- THE REGIONAL CENTRE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY BILL, 2016
- THE MINES AND MINERALS (DEVELOPMENT AND REGULATION) AMENDMENT BILL, 2016
- THE SIKH GURDWARAS (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2016
- THE ELECTION LAWS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2016
- THE AADHAAR (TARGETED DELIVERY OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER SUBSIDIES, BENEFITS AND SERVICES) ACT, 2016
- THE BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS ACT, 2016
- THE CARRIAGE BY AIR (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2016
- THE HIGH COURT AND THE SUPREME COURT JUDGES (SALARIES AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) AMENDMENT ACT, 2016
- THE NATIONAL WATERWAYS ACT, 2016
- THE REAL ESTATE (REGULATION AND DEVELOPMENT) ACT, 2016
- HIV & AIDS (PREVENTION AND CONTROL) AMENDMENT ACT, 2016